La etnia pigmea baka es una de las más desfavorecidas del África Subsahariana
Los pigmeos y pigmeas baka han nacido de la selva, men and women who have always been part of it. This Pygmy ethnicity, who lived until recently as nomads and made a living from fishing, hunting and gathering, have been forced to abandon the forest and to settle in the edge of the road, on foreign lands.
Deforestation caused by the logging and mining industries, as well as by the preservation of protected areas, forced pygmies in the mid-century to sedentarization as their only alternative to subsistence, given the impossibility of pursuing their traditional way of life. Nowadays, they settle in lands dominated by other majority ethnic groups who take advantage of this situation to use them as cheap labor in slavery-like conditions.
La situación actual de esta etnia pigmea es de extrema urgenciaThey live between a past that is not possible anymore and a present in a context in which they feel out of place.
¿Dónde viven las comunidades pigmeas baka?
According to the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, alrededor de 60.000 miembros se reparten entre la República Democrática del Congo, el norte de Gabón y la República Centroafricana, y 5.000 personas pertenecientes a estas comunidades se encuentran en el sur de las selvas de Camerún. Sin embargo, en este país no existe un censo oficial sobre la población pigmea ni tienen una representación en el gobierno nacional ni en los gobiernos regionales y locales.
How is the Baka cultural tradition?
Durante generaciones han desarrollado sus propios métodos para vivir en armonía con la selva, a la que conceden un carácter divino. No se limitan a vivir en la selva, sino que they are part of it.That's why they take care of it and preserve it. This means that they only hunt for food and that they share the roots and fruits harvested with the other members of the group. The jungle provides them with everything they need to live and they do not conceive facts such as accumulating or storing.
Se organizan en grupos pequeños, con matrimonios monógamos y familias nucleares abiertas, donde los niños y niñas son libres y se desarrollan de forma autónoma y los ancianos, por su sabiduría, son la autoridad. Los jefes de los grupos pigmeos tienen la misión de aconsejar y acompañar a su pueblo, pero cada individuo es libre de tomar sus propias decisiones. In the Pygmy culture there is no hierarchical structure and they have great respect for personal autonomy.
La sociedad es muy igualitaria, Knowledge and expertise are valued,, pero esto tampoco concede autoridad sobre el resto de los individuos. Hombres y mujeres tienen dividido el trabajo, pero no existe una superioridad del hombre sobre la mujer ni una dependencia de ésta.
En cada pueblo conviven entre 15 y 20 familias de cuatro miembros cada una. Viven en mongulus, chozas construidas con hojas y troncos de palmera de una sola puerta por donde entra la única fuente de luz natural, de una sola habitación donde hace la vida toda la familia
Este modo de vida es muy distinto al de sus vecinos, los pueblos bantúes, sedentarios y que dominan la sociedad y la economía en el sur de Camerún e imponen las normas de convivencia. La mayoría de ellos no reconoce a las personas pigmeas como seres humanos, lo que las hace víctimas de todo tipo de violaciones de sus derechos.
A pygmy loves his jungle just as much as he loves his own body. Refrán Mbendjele
¿Cuál es la situación actual de los pueblos pigmeos baka?
At present, baka people are still engaged in harvesting, but hunting has been reduced to small animals since it is considered as an illegal practice by the government, as a measure to protect nature reserves. For this reason, the Pygmies work the land of Bantu people, one of the country's ethnic majority, in exchange for a minimum salary, a plate of food or a dose of alcohol. In recent years a clear relationship of hierarchy has been set up, relegating them to a situation of semi-slavery from the Bantu, who often take advantage of their innocence and their ignorance of their own rights.
The legislation of the government of Cameroon acknowledges these peoples as marginalized, and even if they are not recognized as indigenous peoples at the legislative level, in practice they are classiffied as such. However, the lack of an official census on the pygmy population prevents them from being represented in the national government or in regional governments. There are no concrete measures to save their culture and their habitat. Baka people do not receive neither specific aid nor compensations for the use of their land, being in most cases despised and discriminated.
Lack of education and health
This social exclusion is associated with problems of access to education and health care, since many families are unable to cope with the national payment system to receive health care or travel long distances to see the doctor. With regard to the education, although in theory it is free, in practice, Baka children are not accepted in most of the public schools. In the schools were they are accepted, parents must pay for school supplies, uniforms and other expenses, making schooling unaffordable for these families.
Zerca y Lejos is a supporting actor
Zerca y Lejos has been working since 2001 alongside these communities to achieve their emancipation, as well as the recognition of their rights and the preservation of their culture. We believe that the main objective is not to set the way forward, but to support them and empower them to get the necessary tools to open their way to the new horizon that awaits them.
The change will come from themselves, we can only support them.